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This section is specially prepared for quick reference as a summary or guide by which analysis, design, and construction works are carried out. It is written based on practical engineering works and experience of the author, and is not intended for theoretical studies in which case the reader is advised to refer to authority books, literature, manuals, research papers. Reader discretion is advised. If in doubt do Contact Us for clarifications.

References are all made to British Standards Specifications and Metrics System. However, different countries will certainly have their own similar standards, either in Imperial or Metrics, and the reader is advised to consult their own country's regulatory agencies for details. In as much as possible, general principles of analysis and designs will be used, the same irrespective of whatever standards or codes of practiced used.


The British Codes applicable for the design of concrete water retaining structures are BS8110 & BS5337. The designs are usually carried out either based on "Limit State" or "Elastic State", up to the designing engineer or controlled by the Codes used.

Limit State Design

This is based on Ultimate & Serviceability design criteria, where the structural strength & stability are analysed at Ultimate Loads, using factor of safety for Loadings, such as 1.6 for Life Load and 1.4 for Dead Load; while Serviceability is simply based on limiting crack widths of concrete sections in contact with water or moisture, so that water will not leak or corrossion of rebars occur in the long term.

The important analysis here is ensuring that the final crack widths would not exceed the maximum permissible under the BS5337 codes, and to ensure proper construction and movement joints.

The British Standard Codes allow for two options in the analysis: (1) by limiting Maximum Allowable Surface Crack Widths due to bending and tensile forces, and (2) a "Deemed-to-Satisfy" criteria where the Maximum Service Stresses in the rebars are intentionally lowered to ensure cracks will not exceed permissible values. It is up to the engineer to choose whichever options is preferred.

Elastic Design

This is based on Working Loads and Permissible Stresses in both concrete and steel rebars, and assuming a traditional triangular stress blocks. The design approach is relatively simple and generally favoured by most engineers. Calculations are performed to suit two basic Criteria: Strength and Resistance to Cracks. Strength of the structure is calculated assuming the concrete section is cracked, and by reducing the permissible stresses in steel rebars will limit the formation of cracks and thus lower the risks of leakage and corrossion of the steel. Calculations for Resistance to Cracking in done by limiting the tensile stresses in concrete sections based on an uncracked conditions at Working Loads.

Shape of Tanks

Concrete Water Storage Tank is normally shaped as Square or Rectangular or Circular on plan. It can be elevated above ground by columns, resting on ground level, or simply buried underground. The choice depends on the engineer and usually is based on usage and static heads required. Sizes can vary in lengths, widths and height, or diameters depending on desired storage and operating capacity. Internally, the tank can have several compartments for purpose of cleaning and maintenance.

The roof can be reinforced concrete slabs or simply metal roofing. The walls are usually reinforced concrete, either tapered, staggered, or uniform thickness. The base is also reinforced slabs.

For Square or Rectangular shape, the design is normally carried out simply as a Retaining Wall, with water on the internal side and earth pressure on the external side.

Design of Roofs

The design of roof slab is normally carried out as one-way or two way slabs, supported by RC beams. In some cases, use of flat slabs with intermediate columns are also used. The main criteria for design will be having sufficient concrete covers on both sides of the slab to suit the liquid contained and external environment. Generally, the undersigned will be designed for permanently moist conditions, while externally for worst weather conditions.

Design of Walls

The normal design approach is by assuming the walls and base acts together like a Retaining Wall, with the inner side of concrete face, in continuous contact with liquid while the external face is subjected to active earth pressures or the environment. The method of design is as outlined above.

Design of Base slabs

This will depend on whether the tank is elevated, resting on ground level or buried underground. The base slabs act as a foundation for the liquid contained and the weight of structures above, and as such, the geotechnical properties of the soil is an important consideration. Great care must be made to ensure that differential and total settlements are limited as this will affect all interconnecting pipes and fittings and also could seriuosly affect construction and movement joints, causing long term leaking and corrosions.

Design of Joints

This is perhaps one of the most important consideration for purpose of construction and serviceability of the storage tank. Construction joints need to be planned carefully with respect to the "day's work", vertical lifts increment and curing. unplanned stoppage due to rain, equipment breakdown, or for whatever reasons will be costly and remedial works are usually ineffective. Movement joints due to curing, short and long term shrinkage, expansion and contraction, or even possibiity of structure subsidence need to be considered and provided carefully. In many cases both construction and movement joings can be synchronised. Joints are also shape dependent, and as such keeping to simple shapes makes it easier to predict best positions of joints.

Sealants & Waterstops

These are selected and used with joints simply to ensure that the joints are water-tight. The materials & type of sealants and waterstops must be selected carefully to suit the joint types, retained liquid and life span of the structure. Great care must be made to ensure that sealants and waterstops are and can be positioned properly as in many cases, they are difficult to be installed correctly or are dislodged during construction stage.

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Method Statements for the Construction of a 5ML Reinforced Concrete

Circular Reservour for Portable Water Storage

Note: This Method Statement for Construction of the 5ML Reinforced Concrete Reservour is for an actual project in Malaysia, a hot, tropical & humid climate, specific and unique to the local site & working conditions. It may not be applicable to others. This is intended to be used as a reference guide only for the Engineer, who shall use his own experience and judgement in coming up with his own Method Statements specific to his own designs, construction methods, climatic and site conditions. Please Contact Us should you need clarifications.


1. This methods described below will outline in brief the procedures for construction of the RC Reservoir.

2. External Infrastructure & interfacing works are excluded and assumed to be ongoing or constructed later.


1. A licensed Surveyor will be employed to setout the vertical & horizontal control levels & datum. Thereafter, site surveyors & engineers will continuously check for accuracy, and adjustments will be made accordingly.

2.Temporary Bench Marks & Controls will be set out around the Tank.


1. It is understood that the existing ground strata consist of weathered shale.

2. The existing ground, surrounding the tank extending not more than 300mm, or as decided on site to suit, will be carefully over-excavated to a uniform & reasonably level finish, using power tools, excavator, ripper or suitable tools to the following Foundation Levels:-

Overall Ground area = +2I3 .70M (+I 23.95-200mm-50mm)
Column Footing area = +2I3 .50M (+I 23.95M-400mm-50mm).
Retaining Wall Footing = +2I3 .20M (+I 23.95M-700mm-50mm)
Retaining Wall Footing Key = +2I2 .70M (+I 23.95M-700mm-500mm-5Omm)

3. Where level finish is not possible due to jagged shale, slight over excavation not exceeding 150mm would be required and the over-excavated areas will be filled up to the required Foundation Level minus 50mm by backfilling with sandy & fine granular materials excavated from surrounding sites or direct to Foundation Level using mass concrete grade 25, whichever is practical at the time. Where mass concrete is used, the 50mm lean concrete would not be required, provided that mass concrete thickness is 50mm or more.

4. Where backfilling is sand or fine granular materials, the backfill must be compacted using a minimum of 6 tons roller with 8 passes each, and in layers not exceeding 150mm, watered slightly to achieve maximum density of compaction.

5. Backfilling with sand fine granular materials & compaction should be carried out in dry weather. Where weather doe not permit, mass concrete grade 25 shall be used throughout. Backfilled surface, shall be protected from weather by polythene sheet, and should be concreted as soon as possible.

6. Any voids not possible to be compacted by rollers or hand compactor, will be filled with mass concrete grade 25 well rammed.

7. Where sand/granular/blinding layer is formed, a single layer of polythene sheet shall be laid level before lean concrete 50mm grade 25, is cast to form the Foundation Level ready to receive Base Slab.

8. Curing will not be required for mass concrete, other than protection from direct rain via one-layer polythene sheet cover for first day only.

9. Foundation Levels will be re-checked by Licensed Surveyor for Level Accuracy.


1. Internal ground slabs will be constructed in 13 individual panels as per construction joints in the drawings. The sides consist of 12 panels with curved edges while the central panel consist of one continuous slab/footing. The outer panels made up of foundations of retaining walls, will be constructed in 12 individually panels.


1. Plywood Formwork will be placed according to panels in alternate sequence, such that when one panel sets, it's sides will be coated with bitumen and used as "formwork" for continuing panels. Bitumen will be used to coat the Formwork as release agent.

2. Formwork maybe reused twice depending on conditions.

3. For curved sides, thinner plywood formwork in single layer will be used. They will be bent slightly to suit the radius of the tank & fixed onto timber frame. Where bending cannot be achieved without cracking the formwork, small straights of 600mm will be used to form the incremental curve.


1. One layer mesh reinforcement DA8 will be placed on Top of slab with 50mm cover, with discontinuity at joints.

The mesh will be bent at joint slightly if equipment permits, or if not practical, additional bent & lap bars will be used, allowing for 50mm cover at all sides.

2. Mesh reinforcements is held in position by shaped concrete block or purpose made rebar seat. Pass through is not permitted.


1. Waterstop will be constructed at all Joints as per drawing.

2. The centrally placed water-stop 230mm width, will be installed horizontally at mid-level, 100mm from top slab level, using 2-part split formwork, well clamped together to prevent movement during concreting works. The stop-end will terminate at mid-point of the water-stop. Care will be taken at water-stop intersection to ensure adequate overlap. (note that typical floor joint detail indicate that water-stop is placed at bottom of slab, into the concrete)

3. Manufacturer's recommendations for the water-stop fixing will be used where applicable.


1. Concrete pour will utilize pumps direct from Concrete Mixer Trucks for speed and ease of delivery. At least 2 concrete vibrators will be used at any one time. Where pumps are not available, or breakdown, manual delivery via wheel-burrow will be used. To ensure continuity of pour, both contingencies will be provided for.

2. During concreting, care will be taken to ensure concrete beneath the water-stop is well vibrated and filled, to avoid voids and weakness.

3. Slabs &foundations will be constructed simultaneously. Where vertical walls are to extend up, lap bars, construction joints & water-stops will be placed first.

4. Internal circular panel slabs & foundation will be constructed first, starting from one side of the base, and progressing on alternate panels to the other finishing sides. Thereafter, the outer ring Retaining wall slabs will be constructed with vertical lab bars, water-stops & joints.

5. Once concreting is completed, it will be covered with one layer clear polythene sheet, and constantly watered with fine spray for a minimum of 3 days. Once concrete has cured the minute line marks left by polythene sheets may be additionally surface grind to smoothen out.

6. Traffic will not be allowed on the finished concrete slabs for at least 28 days.


1. The Vertical Circular Walls is constructed in 4 vertical increment panels : 1650 - 1800 - 1600 - 1650, and 12 circular segments, with construction joints as per drawing.

2. Metal scaffolding & Timber platform & staging will be constructed on both sides of the wall. The staging will be used to brace &support the formwork and at the same time provide working platform.

3. Formwork shall be made of clean metal sheet factory curved to appropriate radius for external & internal surfaces and cut to fit. The formwork will be held in place by external brackets welded and/or nailed to the timber staging. Joints between panels will be close fitted either nailed to staging and/or bolted together by brackets. The lower formwork will extend into old concrete kicker or walls by not less than 50mm, with firm fit, while the upper will be level flush with the horizontal joint. Key Joint will be made with water-stop as per drawings. The vertical sides of wall will be formed with specially shaped metal sheet by 2-part split to allow for vertical waterstop as per drawing.

4. Vertical & horizontal reinforcements will be laid as per drawing and held in position by shaped concrete block or purpose made rebar seat from external wall, with no pass-through into any internal walls or joints.

5. Where a pass-through rebar seat is required, a purpose circular plate will be welded at mid-point. Alternatively, where required, the bars will be temporarily held in place during concrete vibration, and subsequent withdrawn on completion of vibration and opening in formwork sealed immediately.

6. A non-staining release agent will be applied onto the clean metal sheet formwork.

7. Concrete will be cast via pump delivery starting from one end of the panel, spread horizontally, vibrated and incremented accordingly until to horizontal joint and water-stop.

8. Once casting is completed, exposed concrete surface will be toweled smooth and covered with one layer polythene sheet, wetted and cured.

9. Once surface is cured, joints will be painted with 2 coats bitumen.

10. Formwork will be dismantled in 10 days, or as appropriate, for next panel construction.

11. The process is repeated until the whole 12 panels for each horizontal wall is completed.

12. The procedure is repeated for next increment of wall height, until the roof level, with adjustment to formwork shape for internal surface each panel.

13. Once formwork is stripped, the surfaces are checked carefully for honeycomb, irregularities, or blemishes. Repairs will be carefully made to the surface by touching up. Any honeycomb surface will be further treated with an approved brush-on sealant.

14, Internal walls will be natural finish while external walls will be smoothen out and painted.

Centre Partition Walls

1. The partition walls are constructed in vertical increment of 3 same as the external walls.

2. Unless required, no water-stop would be constructed in the inner areas. Water-stops would be constructed on the last ends of the partition walls, close to the external walls.

3. Since surface is plane, smooth plywood formwork will be used with appropriate working platform & staging.


1. RC columns will be constructed in 2 stages, each 3.25m, with staging to suit.


1. Temporary staging using the RC Columns as support would be made consisting of timber joists or where practical, steel H-beams, or a combination of both, which will support plywood formwork. Alternative, metal staging will be erected and plywood formwork supported by a series of timber joists & braces.

2. Contraction Joints are also made for roof slab, similar to base slabs, with the exception that the bars are continuous through joints.

3. Concreting procedure will be similar to base slabs.

4. Reinforcements are tied with concrete or rebar seats, with or without pass through.

5. Curing procedure will be similar to base slab.

6. Formwork will be removed progressively as the slab is cast.

7. A mobile staging will be made to touch up the underside of roof slab. It will be maintained as natural finish.


1. Where fittings are required, I will be set and cast together with concrete.

2. Care will be taken to ensure discontinuity or if unavoidable, use of appropriate approved joint sealant would be used.


1. Upon completion of works, test will be carried out as per specifications.

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Specifications for Concreting Works

Note: This Specifications are for the Construction of the 5ML Reinforced Concrete Reservour and is for an actual project in Malaysia, specific and unique to the local site & working conditions. It may not be applicable to others. This is intended to be used as a reference guide only for the Engineer, who shall use his own experience and judgement in coming up with his own Specifications based on applicable Codes, Standards & Local Practice. Please Contact Us should you need clarifications.

Sizes and Sequence of Concrete Pours

Before commencing concreting the Contractor shall submit for approval his detailed proposals for the sequence for placing concrete and the positions of vertical and horizontal construction joints. The proposals shall comply with the following :-

Where limitations in lengths of floor or roof slabs that may be cast without joints in any direction are stated on the Drawings, the slabs shall be subdivided by construction joints into panels of dimensions not exceeding the stated limit on length. The panels shall be separately concreted in one continuous operation and no panels shall be concreted until the concrete in adjacent panels is at least 7 days old.

Where limitations in lengths of wall that may be cast without joints are stated on the Drawings they shall be divided into segments not exceeding the stated maximum length by vertical joints which are continuous with the floor joints and extend the full height of tlie walls in an unbroken alignment. Each segment above the top of the wall haunch and the top of the wall shall be cast in a series of lifts each of a length and height to be approved by the Engineer.

Alternate segments in a lift shall be concreted and an interval of 7 days shall elapse before the intervening segments in the same lift are concreted. At each joint rebates shall be formed to receive sealing compounds as shown on the Drawings. Each segment of the wall footing and haunch defined by the floor and wall joints shall be concreted in one continuous operation. Segments shall be concreted alternately and an interval of at least 7 days shall elapse before intervening segments are concreted.

Cleaning to Water Retaining Structures

All water retaining structures shall, on completion, be carefully cleaned, as follows :-

(a) The structure shall be cleared of all debris and shall be brushed down on all internal faces with a stiff broom while still dry, and all resulting debris removed; all associated reservoir pipework shall be cleaned in accordance with the specification requirements.

(b) The structure shall then be flooded with approximately 75 mm of clean water and the whole of the internal faces shall be carefully brushed down with stiff brooms, using the water continuously until all faces are clean; the water shall then be drained off, and the walls and floors hosed and flushed with clean water until perfectly clean.

Testing of Water Retaining Structures

As soon as possible after completion of water retaining structures but not before the concrete has 8ttained its specified 28 days strength they shall be tested for water tightness by filling with clean water up to the designed top water level. The rate of filling shall be reasonably constant and shall not exceed 2 m of depth in 24 hours except in the case of small structures where a higher rate may be allowed by the Engineer. After filling the structure shall be allowed to stand full (being topped up as necessary) for at least 72 hours, for absorption of water by the concrete to take place, at the end of which period the level shall be accurately noted. The structure shall then be tested for a further period of at least 72 hours (48 hours in the case of channels and smaller structures as agreed) and shall be accepted as watertight if:

(i) no leaks or damp patches on the backs of walls are discernible during period of the test (if the backs of walls are wetted by rainfall or any other cause the test must be delayed until they are dry for at least 72 hours). In the case of individual parts of a structure being tested independently, the division walls also must be watertight;

(ii) the floor under-drainage system of the structure (if any) remains dry, or the flow in it before the test is not increased as a result of filling the structure with water;
(iii) the recorded change in level of the water in the structure minus the loss , of water by evaporation gives a figure which does not exceed 1/2000 of the depth of water originally in the structure.

During the 72 hour test period referred to above the loss of water by evaporation shall be determined by measurement of the loss of water from a shallow watertight tray of 0.4 sq m in area containing not less than 75mm depth of water and positioned to float on the surface of the water in the structure.

The roofs and manhole covers of the closed reservoirs shall be tested for water tightness before the laying of any roof membrane by general observation from within the reservoir for damp patches or leaks over a period of heavy and prolonged rain but should such a suitable occurrence fail to happen, the roof and fittings shall be hosed own vigorously and this shall be repeated in such a way as to keep the roof wet for 3 successive days.

The roof and fittings shall be deemed satisfactory for water-tightness if there are no discernible leaks or damp patches from inside the reservoir. Remedial measures and retesting shall be carried out at the Contractor's expense until satisfactory.

Should any parts of the structure fail the above tests in any respect, the Contractor shall immediately take steps to ascertain the nature and positions of any defects or leakages, shall empty the structure, and remedy the defects in an approved manner. Note that a damp patch appearing on the outside of the wall must be rectified from the water face, a repair making the outer face only watertight shall not be approved; this applies to bobbin holes also.

When the remedial work has been completed in an approved manner, the testing and if necessary rectification shall be repeated until a satisfactory test is achieved.

If necessary, in extreme cases of lack of water-tightness, the structure or any member or section of a member thereof may be rejected.

Any expenses in materials (including the supply of water), plant labor and all other costs including overheads and profit involved in all satisfactory and unsatisfactory water-tightness testing of all the water-retaining structures in the works shall be included in the contract price entered by the 'Contractor. No payment will be made for work associated with unsuccessful testing.

Any costs, incurred by the Contractor in remedial or replacement work necessary to achieve the satisfactory testing shall be entirely at the expense of the Contractor.

Disinfection of Water Retaining Structures

Disinfection of water retaining structures shall be carried out by the Contractor after these structures have passed the water-tightness test. The structure sllall be emptied. The internal surfaces of the walls, the internal surface of the roof; the internal and external surfaces of all pipes and specials inside the structure, and all other surfaces inside the structure shall be vigorously brushed and flushed with jets of clear, clean water until all foreign materials;-dirt and grit which may have accumulated thereon are removed. All water and material accumulated in the cleaning operation shall be discharged or otherwise removed from the structure. The Contractor shall provide evidence to the satisfaction of the Engineer that the chlorine dosage proposed for disinfection will not adversely affect joint sealant materials. Chlorination shall be c&ied out by Method I or Method 2 as set out below. The contractor shall submit details of his proposed method of working to the Engineer for approval before commencing disinfection of any structure.


The structure shall then be filled to the overflow level with potable water to - which enough chlorine is added to provide a free chlorine residual throughout the structure of not less than 10mg/litre at the end of the appropriate retention period. This shall be not less than 6 hours when the water entering the structure has been chlorinated uniformly by gas-feed equipment or chemical pump or not less than 24 hours when the structure has been filled with water which has been mixed with calcium hypochlorite or sodium hypochlorite within the structure as described below. The procedure set out in AWWA C652 shall be followed.

At the end of the retention period the free chlorine residual shall be reduced to not more than 2mg/litre by draining and refilling or blending with potable water having a low chlorine concentration, after which the water within the structure shall be sampled to determine the free chlorine residual and for bacteriological analysis to check for the absence of coliform organisms of faecal origin. If the results are unsatisfactory the structure shall be drained and the disinfection procedure shall be repeated. The costs of any re-disinfection shall be borne by the Contractor.


A solution of 200 mg/litre available chlorine shall be applied directly to all surfaces of the structure which would come into contact with water by suitable brushed or spray equipment. The disinfected surfaces shall remain in contact with the strong chlorine solution for at least 30 minutes after which potable water shall be admitted and the structure shall be filled and tested for bacteriological quality as in Method 1.

Chlorine Bearing Solution/Mixture or Disinfection
The chlorine bearing solution/mixture shall be prepared using clear, clean water and chlorine, either as liquid chlorine, calcium hypochlorite or sodium hypochlorite. Liquid chlorine shall be introduced into the water filling the structure to give a uniform chlorine concentration during the entire filling operation. Portable chlorination equipment shall be carefully operated and shall include a liquid chlorine cylinder, gas flow chlorinator, chlorine ejector, safety equipment and at1 appropriate solution tube to inject the high concentration chlorine solution into the filling water. The solution tube shall be inserted through an appropriate valve located on the inlet pipe and near the structure so that the chlorine solution will mix readily with the inflowing water. Calcium hypochlorite granules, broken to a size not exceeding 0.6mm maximum dimension, may be poured into the structure from an opening or placed inside on dry surfaces prior to the introduction of flowing water. They shall be so positioned that a current of water circulating around the structure shall dissolve them during the filling operation. Sodium hypochlorite shall be applied to the water entering the structure by means of a chemical feed pump, or shall be applied by hand-pouring into the structure and allowing the inflowing water to provide the desired mixing.

Sealing Compounds

Sealing compounds for horizontal construction joints shall be hot applied bituminous sealants complying with the requirements of BS 6213. Sealing compounds for vertical and inclined construction joints shall be bituminous putty of a quality approved by the Engineer's Representative. Both sealing compounds shall be capable of expanding to 110% of their original thickness between parallel faces without separation.

Horizontal floor joints and vertical and inclined joints to be filled with the sealing compound shall first be thoroughly cleaned and dried and an approved primer compatible with the sealing compound shall be applied. Each primer and sealing compound shall be applied in accordance with the manufacturer's recommendations for tropical climates.

Sealing compounds for expansion and contraction joints shall be polyurethane or polysulphide liquid polymer sealants complying with BS 6213 obtained from approved manufacturers. The sealing compound shall be capable of expanding to 133% of its original thickness between parallel faces without extruding and of contracting to 67% of its original thickness without separation. Expansion and contraction joints to be filled with the sealing compound shall first be thoroughly cleaned and dried and an approved primer compatible with the sealing compound shall be applied. Both primer and sealing compound shall be applied in accordance with the manufacturer's recommendations for tropical Climates.

Joint Fillers

Joint filler shall be either cork joint filler or cellular joint filler.

Cork joint filler shall be waterproof and rot proof and shall not extrude as a result of compression. Cork joint filler shall compress to less than 50% of its original thickness with immediate recovery to 80% or more of its original thickness.

Cellular joint filler shall be a preformed low-compression joint filler made from foam rubber. Cellular joint filler shall recover to its original thickness after each loading and unloading.


Waterstops shall be of rubber or PVC and shall be a type and manufacture approved by the Engineer. Waterstops shall have a base thickness greater than 7 mm at the central point or adjacent to the central bulb. Waterstops for construction joints shall have upstands at least 15mm in width at the widest point.

Waterstops for contraction and .expansion joints shall have upstands as described above and shall have a central hollow section at least 20mm wide. The Contractor shall carefully follow the manufacturer's instructions in any work involving the incorporation of waterstops into structures.

Waterstops shall be fully continuous when laid and site joints shall be limited to simple butt joints, which are to be made with the manufacturer's fusing jig. A careful check shall be made on all joints after completion to ensure that no imperfections exist. Waterstops shall be securely held in position by the formwork or by means to be approved by the Engineer and the concrete shall be carefully worked around the waterstops to ensure that they are completely embedded and that no air pockets will exist.

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Authur- Philip Goh (B.Sc, MIEM, P.Eng. MICE, C.Eng)
MEC Engineers, Civil & Structural Engineer


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Authur- Philip Goh (B.Sc, MIEM, P.Eng. MICE, C.Eng) MEC Engineers, Civil & Structural Engineer HP: 016-8672189, Email: Widget: email cloaker