RC WATER TANK - WATER RETAINING STRUCTURES
This section is specially prepared for quick reference as a summary or guide by which analysis, design, and
construction works are carried out. It is written based on practical engineering works and experience of the
author, and is not intended for theoretical studies in which case the reader is advised to refer to authority
books, literature, manuals, research papers. Reader discretion is advised. If in doubt do Contact Us for clarifications.
References are all made to British Standards Specifications and Metrics System. However, different countries
will certainly have their own similar standards, either in Imperial or Metrics, and the reader is advised to
consult their own country's regulatory agencies for details. In as much as possible, general principles of analysis
and designs will be used, the same irrespective of whatever standards or codes of practiced used.
The British Codes applicable for the design of concrete water retaining structures are BS8110 & BS5337. The
designs are usually carried out either based on "Limit State" or "Elastic State", up to the designing engineer or
controlled by the Codes used.
Limit State Design
This is based on Ultimate & Serviceability design criteria, where the structural strength & stability
are analysed at Ultimate Loads, using factor of safety for Loadings, such as 1.6 for Life Load and 1.4 for Dead
Load; while Serviceability is simply based on limiting crack widths of concrete sections in contact with water or
moisture, so that water will not leak or corrossion of rebars occur in the long term.
The important analysis here is ensuring that the final crack widths would not exceed the maximum permissible
under the BS5337 codes, and to ensure proper construction and movement joints.
The British Standard Codes allow for two options in the analysis: (1) by limiting Maximum Allowable Surface
Crack Widths due to bending and tensile forces, and (2) a "Deemed-to-Satisfy" criteria where the Maximum Service
Stresses in the rebars are intentionally lowered to ensure cracks will not exceed permissible values. It is up to
the engineer to choose whichever options is preferred.
This is based on Working Loads and Permissible Stresses in both concrete and steel rebars, and assuming a
traditional triangular stress blocks. The design approach is relatively simple and generally favoured by most
engineers. Calculations are performed to suit two basic Criteria: Strength and Resistance to Cracks. Strength of
the structure is calculated assuming the concrete section is cracked, and by reducing the permissible stresses in
steel rebars will limit the formation of cracks and thus lower the risks of leakage and corrossion of the steel.
Calculations for Resistance to Cracking in done by limiting the tensile stresses in concrete sections based on an
uncracked conditions at Working Loads.
Shape of Tanks
Concrete Water Storage Tank is normally shaped as Square or Rectangular or Circular on plan. It can be elevated
above ground by columns, resting on ground level, or simply buried underground. The choice depends on the engineer
and usually is based on usage and static heads required. Sizes can vary in lengths, widths and height, or diameters
depending on desired storage and operating capacity. Internally, the tank can have several compartments for purpose
of cleaning and maintenance.
The roof can be reinforced concrete slabs or simply metal roofing. The walls are usually reinforced concrete,
either tapered, staggered, or uniform thickness. The base is also reinforced slabs.
For Square or Rectangular shape, the design is normally carried out simply as a Retaining Wall, with water on
the internal side and earth pressure on the external side.
Design of Roofs
The design of roof slab is normally carried out as one-way or two way slabs, supported by RC beams. In some
cases, use of flat slabs with intermediate columns are also used. The main criteria for design will be having
sufficient concrete covers on both sides of the slab to suit the liquid contained and external environment.
Generally, the undersigned will be designed for permanently moist conditions, while externally for worst weather
Design of Walls
The normal design approach is by assuming the walls and base acts together like a Retaining Wall, with the inner
side of concrete face, in continuous contact with liquid while the external face is subjected to active earth
pressures or the environment. The method of design is as outlined above.
Design of Base slabs
This will depend on whether the tank is elevated, resting on ground level or buried underground. The base slabs
act as a foundation for the liquid contained and the weight of structures above, and as such, the geotechnical
properties of the soil is an important consideration. Great care must be made to ensure that differential and total
settlements are limited as this will affect all interconnecting pipes and fittings and also could seriuosly affect
construction and movement joints, causing long term leaking and corrosions.
Design of Joints
This is perhaps one of the most important consideration for purpose of construction and serviceability of the
storage tank. Construction joints need to be planned carefully with respect to the "day's work", vertical lifts
increment and curing. unplanned stoppage due to rain, equipment breakdown, or for whatever reasons will be costly
and remedial works are usually ineffective. Movement joints due to curing, short and long term shrinkage, expansion
and contraction, or even possibiity of structure subsidence need to be considered and provided carefully. In many
cases both construction and movement joings can be synchronised. Joints are also shape dependent, and as such
keeping to simple shapes makes it easier to predict best positions of joints.
Sealants & Waterstops
These are selected and used with joints simply to ensure that the joints are water-tight. The materials &
type of sealants and waterstops must be selected carefully to suit the joint types, retained liquid and life span
of the structure. Great care must be made to ensure that sealants and waterstops are and can be positioned properly
as in many cases, they are difficult to be installed correctly or are dislodged during construction stage.
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Method Statements for the Construction of a 5ML Reinforced Concrete
Circular Reservour for Portable Water Storage
Note: This Method Statement for Construction of the 5ML Reinforced Concrete Reservour is for an actual project
in Malaysia, a hot, tropical & humid climate, specific and unique to the local site & working conditions.
It may not be applicable to others. This is intended to be used as a reference guide only for the Engineer, who
shall use his own experience and judgement in coming up with his own Method Statements specific to his own designs,
construction methods, climatic and site conditions. Please Contact Us should you
SCOPES OF WORKS
1. This methods described below will outline in brief the procedures for construction of the RC Reservoir.
2. External Infrastructure & interfacing works are excluded and assumed to be ongoing or constructed
SURVEY SETTING OUT
1. A licensed Surveyor will be employed to setout the vertical & horizontal control levels & datum.
Thereafter, site surveyors & engineers will continuously check for accuracy, and adjustments will be made
2.Temporary Bench Marks & Controls will be set out around the Tank.
PREPARATION OF FOUNDATION
1. It is understood that the existing ground strata consist of weathered shale.
2. The existing ground, surrounding the tank extending not more than 300mm, or as decided on site to suit, will
be carefully over-excavated to a uniform & reasonably level finish, using power tools, excavator, ripper or
suitable tools to the following Foundation Levels:-
Overall Ground area = +2I3 .70M (+I 23.95-200mm-50mm)
Column Footing area = +2I3 .50M (+I 23.95M-400mm-50mm).
Retaining Wall Footing = +2I3 .20M (+I 23.95M-700mm-50mm)
Retaining Wall Footing Key = +2I2 .70M (+I 23.95M-700mm-500mm-5Omm)
3. Where level finish is not possible due to jagged shale, slight over excavation not exceeding 150mm would be
required and the over-excavated areas will be filled up to the required Foundation Level minus 50mm by backfilling
with sandy & fine granular materials excavated from surrounding sites or direct to Foundation Level using mass
concrete grade 25, whichever is practical at the time. Where mass concrete is used, the 50mm lean concrete would
not be required, provided that mass concrete thickness is 50mm or more.
4. Where backfilling is sand or fine granular materials, the backfill must be compacted using a minimum of 6
tons roller with 8 passes each, and in layers not exceeding 150mm, watered slightly to achieve maximum density of
5. Backfilling with sand fine granular materials & compaction should be carried out in dry weather. Where
weather doe not permit, mass concrete grade 25 shall be used throughout. Backfilled surface, shall be protected
from weather by polythene sheet, and should be concreted as soon as possible.
6. Any voids not possible to be compacted by rollers or hand compactor, will be filled with mass concrete grade
25 well rammed.
7. Where sand/granular/blinding layer is formed, a single layer of polythene sheet shall be laid level before
lean concrete 50mm grade 25, is cast to form the Foundation Level ready to receive Base Slab.
8. Curing will not be required for mass concrete, other than protection from direct rain via one-layer polythene
sheet cover for first day only.
9. Foundation Levels will be re-checked by Licensed Surveyor for Level Accuracy.
CONSTRUCTION OF GROUND SLABS. WALL & COLUMN FOUNDATIONS
1. Internal ground slabs will be constructed in 13 individual panels as per construction joints in the drawings.
The sides consist of 12 panels with curved edges while the central panel consist of one continuous slab/footing.
The outer panels made up of foundations of retaining walls, will be constructed in 12 individually panels.
1. Plywood Formwork will be placed according to panels in alternate sequence, such that when one panel sets,
it's sides will be coated with bitumen and used as "formwork" for continuing panels. Bitumen will be used to coat
the Formwork as release agent.
2. Formwork maybe reused twice depending on conditions.
3. For curved sides, thinner plywood formwork in single layer will be used. They will be bent slightly to suit
the radius of the tank & fixed onto timber frame. Where bending cannot be achieved without cracking the
formwork, small straights of 600mm will be used to form the incremental curve.
1. One layer mesh reinforcement DA8 will be placed on Top of slab with 50mm cover, with discontinuity at
The mesh will be bent at joint slightly if equipment permits, or if not practical, additional bent & lap
bars will be used, allowing for 50mm cover at all sides.
2. Mesh reinforcements is held in position by shaped concrete block or purpose made rebar seat. Pass through is
1. Waterstop will be constructed at all Joints as per drawing.
2. The centrally placed water-stop 230mm width, will be installed horizontally at mid-level, 100mm from top slab
level, using 2-part split formwork, well clamped together to prevent movement during concreting works. The stop-end
will terminate at mid-point of the water-stop. Care will be taken at water-stop intersection to ensure adequate
overlap. (note that typical floor joint detail indicate that water-stop is placed at bottom of slab, into the
3. Manufacturer's recommendations for the water-stop fixing will be used where applicable.
1. Concrete pour will utilize pumps direct from Concrete Mixer Trucks for speed and ease of delivery. At least 2
concrete vibrators will be used at any one time. Where pumps are not available, or breakdown, manual delivery via
wheel-burrow will be used. To ensure continuity of pour, both contingencies will be provided for.
2. During concreting, care will be taken to ensure concrete beneath the water-stop is well vibrated and filled,
to avoid voids and weakness.
3. Slabs &foundations will be constructed simultaneously. Where vertical walls are to extend up, lap bars,
construction joints & water-stops will be placed first.
4. Internal circular panel slabs & foundation will be constructed first, starting from one side of the base,
and progressing on alternate panels to the other finishing sides. Thereafter, the outer ring Retaining wall slabs
will be constructed with vertical lab bars, water-stops & joints.
5. Once concreting is completed, it will be covered with one layer clear polythene sheet, and constantly watered
with fine spray for a minimum of 3 days. Once concrete has cured the minute line marks left by polythene sheets may
be additionally surface grind to smoothen out.
6. Traffic will not be allowed on the finished concrete slabs for at least 28 days.
CONSTRUCTION OF CIRCULAR WALLS
1. The Vertical Circular Walls is constructed in 4 vertical increment panels : 1650 - 1800 - 1600 - 1650, and 12
circular segments, with construction joints as per drawing.
2. Metal scaffolding & Timber platform & staging will be constructed on both sides of the wall. The
staging will be used to brace &support the formwork and at the same time provide working platform.
3. Formwork shall be made of clean metal sheet factory curved to appropriate radius for external & internal
surfaces and cut to fit. The formwork will be held in place by external brackets welded and/or nailed to the timber
staging. Joints between panels will be close fitted either nailed to staging and/or bolted together by brackets.
The lower formwork will extend into old concrete kicker or walls by not less than 50mm, with firm fit, while the
upper will be level flush with the horizontal joint. Key Joint will be made with water-stop as per drawings. The
vertical sides of wall will be formed with specially shaped metal sheet by 2-part split to allow for vertical
waterstop as per drawing.
4. Vertical & horizontal reinforcements will be laid as per drawing and held in position by shaped concrete
block or purpose made rebar seat from external wall, with no pass-through into any internal walls or joints.
5. Where a pass-through rebar seat is required, a purpose circular plate will be welded at mid-point.
Alternatively, where required, the bars will be temporarily held in place during concrete vibration, and subsequent
withdrawn on completion of vibration and opening in formwork sealed immediately.
6. A non-staining release agent will be applied onto the clean metal sheet formwork.
7. Concrete will be cast via pump delivery starting from one end of the panel, spread horizontally, vibrated and
incremented accordingly until to horizontal joint and water-stop.
8. Once casting is completed, exposed concrete surface will be toweled smooth and covered with one layer
polythene sheet, wetted and cured.
9. Once surface is cured, joints will be painted with 2 coats bitumen.
10. Formwork will be dismantled in 10 days, or as appropriate, for next panel construction.
11. The process is repeated until the whole 12 panels for each horizontal wall is completed.
12. The procedure is repeated for next increment of wall height, until the roof level, with adjustment to
formwork shape for internal surface each panel.
13. Once formwork is stripped, the surfaces are checked carefully for honeycomb, irregularities, or blemishes.
Repairs will be carefully made to the surface by touching up. Any honeycomb surface will be further treated with an
approved brush-on sealant.
14, Internal walls will be natural finish while external walls will be smoothen out and painted.
Centre Partition Walls
1. The partition walls are constructed in vertical increment of 3 same as the external walls.
2. Unless required, no water-stop would be constructed in the inner areas. Water-stops would be constructed on
the last ends of the partition walls, close to the external walls.
3. Since surface is plane, smooth plywood formwork will be used with appropriate working platform &
CONSTRUCTION OF RC COLUMNS
1. RC columns will be constructed in 2 stages, each 3.25m, with staging to suit.
CONSTRUC'TION OF RC ROOF SLAB
1. Temporary staging using the RC Columns as support would be made consisting of timber joists or where
practical, steel H-beams, or a combination of both, which will support plywood formwork. Alternative, metal staging
will be erected and plywood formwork supported by a series of timber joists & braces.
2. Contraction Joints are also made for roof slab, similar to base slabs, with the exception that the bars are
continuous through joints.
3. Concreting procedure will be similar to base slabs.
4. Reinforcements are tied with concrete or rebar seats, with or without pass through.
5. Curing procedure will be similar to base slab.
6. Formwork will be removed progressively as the slab is cast.
7. A mobile staging will be made to touch up the underside of roof slab. It will be maintained as natural
1. Where fittings are required, I will be set and cast together with concrete.
2. Care will be taken to ensure discontinuity or if unavoidable, use of appropriate approved joint sealant would
1. Upon completion of works, test will be carried out as per specifications.
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Specifications for Concreting Works
Note: This Specifications are for the Construction of the 5ML Reinforced Concrete Reservour and is for an actual
project in Malaysia, specific and unique to the local site & working conditions. It may not be applicable to
others. This is intended to be used as a reference guide only for the Engineer, who shall use his own experience
and judgement in coming up with his own Specifications based on applicable Codes, Standards & Local Practice.
Please Contact Us should you need clarifications.
Sizes and Sequence of Concrete Pours
Before commencing concreting the Contractor shall submit for approval his detailed proposals for the sequence
for placing concrete and the positions of vertical and horizontal construction joints. The proposals shall comply
with the following :-
Where limitations in lengths of floor or roof slabs that may be cast without joints in any direction are stated
on the Drawings, the slabs shall be subdivided by construction joints into panels of dimensions not exceeding the
stated limit on length. The panels shall be separately concreted in one continuous operation and no panels shall be
concreted until the concrete in adjacent panels is at least 7 days old.
Where limitations in lengths of wall that may be cast without joints are stated on the Drawings they shall be
divided into segments not exceeding the stated maximum length by vertical joints which are continuous with the
floor joints and extend the full height of tlie walls in an unbroken alignment. Each segment above the top of the
wall haunch and the top of the wall shall be cast in a series of lifts each of a length and height to be approved
by the Engineer.
Alternate segments in a lift shall be concreted and an interval of 7 days shall elapse before the intervening
segments in the same lift are concreted. At each joint rebates shall be formed to receive sealing compounds as
shown on the Drawings. Each segment of the wall footing and haunch defined by the floor and wall joints shall be
concreted in one continuous operation. Segments shall be concreted alternately and an interval of at least 7 days
shall elapse before intervening segments are concreted.
Cleaning to Water Retaining Structures
All water retaining structures shall, on completion, be carefully cleaned, as follows :-
(a) The structure shall be cleared of all debris and shall be brushed down on all internal faces with a stiff
broom while still dry, and all resulting debris removed; all associated reservoir pipework shall be cleaned in
accordance with the specification requirements.
(b) The structure shall then be flooded with approximately 75 mm of clean water and the whole of the internal
faces shall be carefully brushed down with stiff brooms, using the water continuously until all faces are clean;
the water shall then be drained off, and the walls and floors hosed and flushed with clean water until perfectly
Testing of Water Retaining Structures
As soon as possible after completion of water retaining structures but not before the concrete has 8ttained its
specified 28 days strength they shall be tested for water tightness by filling with clean water up to the designed
top water level. The rate of filling shall be reasonably constant and shall not exceed 2 m of depth in 24 hours
except in the case of small structures where a higher rate may be allowed by the Engineer. After filling the
structure shall be allowed to stand full (being topped up as necessary) for at least 72 hours, for absorption of
water by the concrete to take place, at the end of which period the level shall be accurately noted. The structure
shall then be tested for a further period of at least 72 hours (48 hours in the case of channels and smaller
structures as agreed) and shall be accepted as watertight if:
(i) no leaks or damp patches on the backs of walls are discernible during period of the test (if the backs of
walls are wetted by rainfall or any other cause the test must be delayed until they are dry for at least 72 hours).
In the case of individual parts of a structure being tested independently, the division walls also must be
(ii) the floor under-drainage system of the structure (if any) remains dry, or the flow in it before the test is
not increased as a result of filling the structure with water;
(iii) the recorded change in level of the water in the structure minus the loss , of water by evaporation gives a
figure which does not exceed 1/2000 of the depth of water originally in the structure.
During the 72 hour test period referred to above the loss of water by evaporation shall be determined by
measurement of the loss of water from a shallow watertight tray of 0.4 sq m in area containing not less than 75mm
depth of water and positioned to float on the surface of the water in the structure.
The roofs and manhole covers of the closed reservoirs shall be tested for water tightness before the laying of
any roof membrane by general observation from within the reservoir for damp patches or leaks over a period of heavy
and prolonged rain but should such a suitable occurrence fail to happen, the roof and fittings shall be hosed own
vigorously and this shall be repeated in such a way as to keep the roof wet for 3 successive days.
The roof and fittings shall be deemed satisfactory for water-tightness if there are no discernible leaks or damp
patches from inside the reservoir. Remedial measures and retesting shall be carried out at the Contractor's expense
Should any parts of the structure fail the above tests in any respect, the Contractor shall immediately take
steps to ascertain the nature and positions of any defects or leakages, shall empty the structure, and remedy the
defects in an approved manner. Note that a damp patch appearing on the outside of the wall must be rectified from
the water face, a repair making the outer face only watertight shall not be approved; this applies to bobbin holes
When the remedial work has been completed in an approved manner, the testing and if necessary rectification
shall be repeated until a satisfactory test is achieved.
If necessary, in extreme cases of lack of water-tightness, the structure or any member or section of a member
thereof may be rejected.
Any expenses in materials (including the supply of water), plant labor and all other costs including overheads
and profit involved in all satisfactory and unsatisfactory water-tightness testing of all the water-retaining
structures in the works shall be included in the contract price entered by the 'Contractor. No payment will be made
for work associated with unsuccessful testing.
Any costs, incurred by the Contractor in remedial or replacement work necessary to achieve the satisfactory
testing shall be entirely at the expense of the Contractor.
Disinfection of Water Retaining Structures
Disinfection of water retaining structures shall be carried out by the Contractor after these structures have
passed the water-tightness test. The structure sllall be emptied. The internal surfaces of the walls, the internal
surface of the roof; the internal and external surfaces of all pipes and specials inside the structure, and all
other surfaces inside the structure shall be vigorously brushed and flushed with jets of clear, clean water until
all foreign materials;-dirt and grit which may have accumulated thereon are removed. All water and material
accumulated in the cleaning operation shall be discharged or otherwise removed from the structure. The Contractor
shall provide evidence to the satisfaction of the Engineer that the chlorine dosage proposed for disinfection will
not adversely affect joint sealant materials. Chlorination shall be c&ied out by Method I or Method 2 as set
out below. The contractor shall submit details of his proposed method of working to the Engineer for approval
before commencing disinfection of any structure.
The structure shall then be filled to the overflow level with potable water to - which enough chlorine is added
to provide a free chlorine residual throughout the structure of not less than 10mg/litre at the end of the
appropriate retention period. This shall be not less than 6 hours when the water entering the structure has been
chlorinated uniformly by gas-feed equipment or chemical pump or not less than 24 hours when the structure has been
filled with water which has been mixed with calcium hypochlorite or sodium hypochlorite within the structure as
described below. The procedure set out in AWWA C652 shall be followed.
At the end of the retention period the free chlorine residual shall be reduced to not more than 2mg/litre by
draining and refilling or blending with potable water having a low chlorine concentration, after which the water
within the structure shall be sampled to determine the free chlorine residual and for bacteriological analysis to
check for the absence of coliform organisms of faecal origin. If the results are unsatisfactory the structure shall
be drained and the disinfection procedure shall be repeated. The costs of any re-disinfection shall be borne by the
A solution of 200 mg/litre available chlorine shall be applied directly to all surfaces of the structure which
would come into contact with water by suitable brushed or spray equipment. The disinfected surfaces shall remain in
contact with the strong chlorine solution for at least 30 minutes after which potable water shall be admitted and
the structure shall be filled and tested for bacteriological quality as in Method 1.
Chlorine Bearing Solution/Mixture or DisinfectionThe chlorine bearing solution/mixture shall be prepared
using clear, clean water and chlorine, either as liquid chlorine, calcium hypochlorite or sodium hypochlorite.
Liquid chlorine shall be introduced into the water filling the structure to give a uniform chlorine concentration
during the entire filling operation. Portable chlorination equipment shall be carefully operated and shall include
a liquid chlorine cylinder, gas flow chlorinator, chlorine ejector, safety equipment and at1 appropriate solution
tube to inject the high concentration chlorine solution into the filling water. The solution tube shall be inserted
through an appropriate valve located on the inlet pipe and near the structure so that the chlorine solution will
mix readily with the inflowing water. Calcium hypochlorite granules, broken to a size not exceeding 0.6mm maximum
dimension, may be poured into the structure from an opening or placed inside on dry surfaces prior to the
introduction of flowing water. They shall be so positioned that a current of water circulating around the structure
shall dissolve them during the filling operation. Sodium hypochlorite shall be applied to the water entering the
structure by means of a chemical feed pump, or shall be applied by hand-pouring into the structure and allowing the
inflowing water to provide the desired mixing.
Sealing compounds for horizontal construction joints shall be hot applied bituminous sealants complying with the
requirements of BS 6213. Sealing compounds for vertical and inclined construction joints shall be bituminous putty
of a quality approved by the Engineer's Representative. Both sealing compounds shall be capable of expanding to
110% of their original thickness between parallel faces without separation.
Horizontal floor joints and vertical and inclined joints to be filled with the sealing compound shall first be
thoroughly cleaned and dried and an approved primer compatible with the sealing compound shall be applied. Each
primer and sealing compound shall be applied in accordance with the manufacturer's recommendations for tropical
Sealing compounds for expansion and contraction joints shall be polyurethane or polysulphide liquid polymer
sealants complying with BS 6213 obtained from approved manufacturers. The sealing compound shall be capable of
expanding to 133% of its original thickness between parallel faces without extruding and of contracting to 67% of
its original thickness without separation. Expansion and contraction joints to be filled with the sealing compound
shall first be thoroughly cleaned and dried and an approved primer compatible with the sealing compound shall be
applied. Both primer and sealing compound shall be applied in accordance with the manufacturer's recommendations
for tropical Climates.
Joint filler shall be either cork joint filler or cellular joint filler.
Cork joint filler shall be waterproof and rot proof and shall not extrude as a result of compression. Cork joint
filler shall compress to less than 50% of its original thickness with immediate recovery to 80% or more of its
Cellular joint filler shall be a preformed low-compression joint filler made from foam rubber. Cellular joint
filler shall recover to its original thickness after each loading and unloading.
Waterstops shall be of rubber or PVC and shall be a type and manufacture approved by the Engineer. Waterstops
shall have a base thickness greater than 7 mm at the central point or adjacent to the central bulb. Waterstops for
construction joints shall have upstands at least 15mm in width at the widest point.
Waterstops for contraction and .expansion joints shall have upstands as described above and shall have a central
hollow section at least 20mm wide. The Contractor shall carefully follow the manufacturer's instructions in any
work involving the incorporation of waterstops into structures.
Waterstops shall be fully continuous when laid and site joints shall be limited to simple butt joints, which are
to be made with the manufacturer's fusing jig. A careful check shall be made on all joints after completion to
ensure that no imperfections exist. Waterstops shall be securely held in position by the formwork or by means to be
approved by the Engineer and the concrete shall be carefully worked around the waterstops to ensure that they are
completely embedded and that no air pockets will exist.
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Authur- Philip Goh (B.Sc, MIEM, P.Eng. MICE,
MEC Engineers, Civil & Structural Engineer