we need to use Eurocodes Codes ?
Do Malaysian Engineers need to use Eurocodes in Designs
of Civil & Structural Engineering Works?
After year 2010, all EU Countries including United Kindgom will
be using Structural Eurocodes, which is a Unified Code for the design of all Civil & Structural engineering
works in those countries, similar to the Euro Dollar concept. These Codes comprise an extensive suite of 58 parts
and sub-parts. These are most comprehensive and advanced sets of Codes and Standards ever compiled and in
The UK is phasing out the use of British Standards and Codes of
practice and will thus implement the Eurocodes by year 2010.
Despite the technical and cultural differences between
countries, systems and peoples, it was found that engineers could adapt easily to the new standards and
should have no problem in their use.
For many Civil & Structural Engineers outside the EU
Countries, and particularly those graduated before year 2010 for UK or Malaysian Universities, the need to change
and adopt to Enrocode depends very much on personal, company you worked for and the government regulatory
For Malaysian Experienced Engineers many had been using BS449,
BS 5950 for Steelworks and CP110, BS 8110 for Reinforced & Prestressed Concrete, successfully over the
years. These would include the use of software based on these older codes.
Inorder to use the Eurocodes you will have to invest more time
and effort to read and understand the codes and then apply them correctly with modifications to suit
Malaysian climate and conditions. You would also need to upgrade your software and any calculation methods and
procedures you had developed over the years.
On the other hand, there is perfect sense to continue your use
of the Standards & Codes which you are most familiar with as in a commercial environment, familiarity for speed
of works is critical and that itself is economy. Furthermore, the Malaysian Government will not change the building
codes soon, and in fact it will be many years before the Eurocodes will be specified in the building codes and
bylaws. A most probably situation will be the acceptance of all codes, British Standards from BS449 to BS5950 and
CP110 to BS8110 and also all relevant Eurocodes such as EN 1992 Eurocode 2 - Concrete Design. Unfortunately
Malaysians do not have a Malaysian Standards & Codes for Civil & Structural Works and even if we have
these, they are modeled based on the older British Standards & Codes.
There is an argument that the Structural Eurocodes has greater
economy in design, however, conditions in Malaysia and similar tropical climate would not necessarily provide
better economy compared to the use of older BS Standards and Codes of Practices.
However, there is no question that Malaysia or other
Commonwealth Countries such as Singapore, India, Philippines, Australia, etc, in the near future will adopt the
Eurocode Standards with some modifications to suit the local conditions, such as climate, earthquakes, etc. This
will be particularly true as younger engineering graduates are being schooled in Eurocodes standards in United
Kingdom and Local Universities. With the mobility of today’s employment market, younger engineers will have to find
work anywhere and being conversant with the new Eurocodes will put them in better positions around the
conclusion, unless you are designing or intend to do so for works in EU Countries, it is better and simpler for
older & experienced engineers to continue the use of whatever standards and codes of practice you are most
familiar with. For younger graduates however, the Eurocodes are the way for the future. Having said that, should
you have the time, keeping updated, on practices in the Eurocodes would enhance your technical capabilities all the
same, to be on par with your associates and the international professionals.
For those interested to in Design of Civil & Structural Works in Eurocodes
extensive book references & Eurocode Standards are available
Lists of Eurocode Standards
The comprehensive list of Eurocodes for Engineering are as listed below. These need to be read based on each
Country's National Annexes. If your country does not have the National Annexes, then you can
adopt the UK National Annexes, similar to British Standards.
Eurocode 0: Basis of Structural Design
Eurocode 1: Actions on Structures
-General actions. Densities, self-weight, imposed loads for buildings, fire, snow, wind, thermal, execution,
accidental loads, Traffic loads on Bridges, Actions induced by cranes and machines, Silos & Tanks
Eurocode 2: Design of Concrete Structures.
-General rules and rules for buildings, Structural Fire design, Concrete Bridges design & detailingg rules,
Liquid Retaining & Containing Structures
Eurocode 3. Design of Steel Structures.
General rules and rules for buildings, Structural fire design, Supplementary rules for cold-formed members and
sheeting, stainless steels, Plated Structural Elements, Strength and Stability of Shell Structures, Design of
joints, Fatigue, Material toughness and through-thickness properties, Design of structures with tension components,
Additional rules for the extension of EN 1993 up to steel grades S700, Steel Bridges, Towers, masts and chimneys.
Towers and masts & Chimneys, Silos, Tanks, Pipelines, Piling, Crane Supporting Structures.
Eurocode 4. Design of composite steel and concrete structures.
General rules and rules for buildings, Structural fire design, rules for bridges.
Eurocode 5. Design of Timber Structures.
General. Common rules and rules for buildings, structural design flow chart, structural fire design, Timber
Eurocode 6. Design of Masonry Structures.
Design considerations,General rules for reinforced and unreinforced masonry. structures, fire selection of
materials and execution of masonry; Simplified Calculation Methods for unreinforced masonry structures.
Eurocode 7. Geotechnical Design.
General rules, Ground Investigations & Testing.
Eurocode 8. Design of Structures for Earthquake Resistance.
General rules, seismic actions and rules for buildings, Bridges, Silos, Tanks, Pipelines, Foundations, Retaining
Structures & Geotechnical Aspects, Towers, Masts & Chimneys.
Eurocode 9. Design of Aluminium Structures.
General structural rules, fire, fatigue, Cold-Formed structural sheets, shell structures
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Authur- Philip Goh (B.Sc, MIEM, P.Eng. MICE,
MEC Engineers, Civil & Structural Engineer